To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Sense and Linguistic Meaning. Carlo Penco. A solution to the Burge-Kripke Conflict - Revisiting Burgeafter more than two decades of debate on indexicals, may help to better understand the originality and the limitation of his claims. Here Frege — in anticipating the topic of context dependence — finds a problem in defining the thought as the sense of a sentence when the words alone in a sentence are not sufficient to express a complete thought.

This problem seems to require an adjustment of his earlier views on sense4, and the solution to the problem compels a reading where sense cannot be identified with linguistic meaning. A short version of this paper should have been given at the Wismar Conference on Frege Penco,where I was unable to go.

sense and linguistic meaning. a solution to the burge-kripke conflict

This last aspect has been much debated since Weinerbut will be only indirectly considered here. Thus the thought expressed by the different utterances may be different, as are the senses associated with indexicals.

Burge does not give an explicit answer to the question, but gives different suggestions remarking that Frege had a problem that he really never put into focus, that is the following tension or contrast: [C] There is a tension between two objectives that Frege had for his notion of sense: 1 Sense as a conceptual representation for the thinker, or as accounting for cognitive value. How may this notion help individuating the sense of indexical expressions?

Here Kripke insists, as Burge in his paper, of the need of a non- conceptual Burge or non-linguistic Kripke component of the sense of an indexical. But what are the sense and the reference of a non-linguistic part of the expression? Are there other alternatives that may justify the Fregean claim9? I will give some details on a possible alternative solution of the puzzle that runs against the identification of sense and linguistic meaning, especially when we are thinking of the sense of a sentence in context.

Frege Unwanted Ambiguity That the notion of sense in Frege is too rich and has been put to serve too many functions is a widespread idea. Interpretations of Frege however are often so much detailed, that it is difficult to exit from one set of exegesis and connect it to other ones.

As also Textorp. Although there are strong disagreements on different points of Fregean exegesis, it seems to me that some convergence among interpreters is beginning to consolidate. Salmonp. This last claim is rejected by Dummettp. From this and other arguments Beaneych. This tension in the notion of Fregean Sinn has been often expressed in two contrasting Fregean tenets: 1 Structurally different sentences can express the same thought.

Many authors agree in recognizing in Frege different motivations behind the two theses, motivations that might make Frege unaware of the contrast. How can we apply this solution to the question [Q]?

This rejection of Frege parallels the rejection of other passages e. On the other hand Burge himself has been too rapid in using [T] to substantiate his claim that sense is not linguistic meaning.

Why not to show instead that, analysing indexicals, Frege is just trying to save the truth conditional vision of sense?Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Frege is celebrated as an arch-Platonist and arch-realist.

Until recently, there were few attempts to explicate these renowned claims, for most philosophers thought the clarity of Frege's prose rendered explication unnecessary. View on Springer. Save to Library. Create Alert. Launch Research Feed. Share This Paper. Topics from this paper.

Identity Crisis

Frege—Church ontology. Tyler Oakley. Citations Publications citing this paper. Frege's puzzle about the cognitive function of truth Dirk Greimann Philosophy Sense and linguistic meaning. References Publications referenced by this paper. Burge's Literal Interpretation of Frege J. Weiner Philosophy Ricketts Philosophy Frege on knowing the third realm Tyler Burge Philosophy Function and Concept.Many of our mental states such as beliefs and desires are intentional mental states, or mental states with content.

sense and linguistic meaning. a solution to the burge-kripke conflict

Externalism with regard to mental content says that in order to have certain types of intentional mental states e. Internalism or individualism denies this, and it affirms that having those intentional mental states depends solely on our intrinsic properties. This debate has important consequences with regard to philosophical and empirical theories of the mind, and the role of social institutions and the physical environment in constituting the mind.

It also raises other interesting questions concerning such matters as the explanatory relevance of content and the possibility of a priori self-knowledge.

In its most general formulation, externalism with regard to a property K is a thesis about how K is individuated. It says that whether a creature has K or not depends in part on facts about how the creature is related to its external environment.

In other words, it is metaphysically possible that there are two intrinsically indistinguishable creatures, only one of which has property Kas a result of them being situated in different environments.

To give a trivial example, externalism is true of mosquito bites since having them requires having been bitten by a mosquito. A mark on the skin created by careful micro-surgery is not a mosquito bite, even if it is intrinsically indistinguishable from a real one.

Individualism or internalism with respect to a property K says that whether a creature has K or not supervenes on its intrinsic properties only. It follows that facts about the environment play no role in determining whether or not the creature has property K. Notice that internalism does not deny that the environment can causally affect whether something has K.

For example, external factors such as exposure to radiation can cause cancer in an individual, but having cancer is still an internal physical state.

This article reviews the externalism vs. An intentional mental state is a mental state of a particular psychological type with some particular mental content. For example, believing that it is raining and hoping that it is raining are intentional mental states with the same content but of distinct psychological types. Whereas believing that it is raining and believing that it is sunny are states with distinct contents but of the same psychological type. For the purpose of discussion, knowledge will not count as a psychological type.

Externalism is clearly true of knowledge of the environment, since one can know that it is raining outside only if it is indeed raining outside. But this kind of externalism is not too interesting.

Externalism is true here only in part because knowledge requires veridical contents. What is controversial is whether externalism extends to mental states belonging to psychological types which do not have such a requirement, e.

This is what the externalism debate on mental content is about. Among intentional mental states, a distinction is sometimes drawn between those that are de dicto of the dictum or proposition and those that are de re of the thing. De re mental states, usually ascribed in English with an of or about locution e. However, a difficulty with this understanding of the distinction, pointed out by Farkasis that it appears to rule out the possibility of antiphysicalist internalists.But where did this idea originate?

Why do people experience this kind of personal crisis? Is it something confined to the teenage years? If you are unsure of your role in life or you feel like you don't know the 'real you,' you may be experiencing an identity crisis.

The concept originates in the work of developmental psychologist Erik Erikson, who believed that the formation of identity was one of the most important parts of a person's life. While developing a sense of identity is an important part of the teenage years, Erikson did not believe that the formation and growth of identity were just confined to adolescence.

Instead, identity is something that shifts and grows throughout life as people confront new challenges and tackle different experiences. Theorist Erikson coined the term identity crisis and believed that it was one of the most important conflicts people face in development. According to Erikson, an identity crisis is a time of intensive analysis and exploration of different ways of looking at oneself. Erikson's own interest in identity began in childhood.

Raised Jewish, Erikson appeared very Scandinavian and often felt that he was an outsider of both groups. His later studies of cultural life among the Yurok of northern California and the Sioux of South Dakota helped formalize Erikson's ideas about identity development and identity crisis. Erikson described identity as "a subjective sense as well as an observable quality of personal sameness and continuity, paired with some belief in the sameness and continuity of some shared world image.

As a quality of unself-conscious living, this can be gloriously obvious in a young person who has found himself as he has found his communality.

Researcher James Marcia, has expanded upon Erikson's initial theory. According to Marcia and his colleagues, the balance between identity and confusion lies in making a commitment to an identity. Marcia also developed an interview method to measure identity as well as four different identity statuses. This method looks at three different areas of functioning: occupational role, beliefs and values, and sexuality.

In Erikson's stages of psychosocial developmentthe emergence of an identity crisis occurs during the teenage years in which people struggle with feelings of identity versus role confusion. In today's rapidly changing world, identity crises are more common today than in Erikson's day. These conflicts are certainly not confined to the teenage years. People tend to experience them at various points throughout life, particularly at points of great change, including:.

Identity crises are also common among people with mental illness, including depression, codependence, bipolar disorder, and borderline personality disorder.

While we all question who we are from time to time, you may be having an identity crisis if you are going through a big change or stressful time in life and the following questions begin to interfere with your daily life. Researchers have found that those who have made a strong commitment to an identity tend to be happier and healthier than those who have not.

Exploring different aspects of yourself in the different areas of life, including your role at work, within the family, and in romantic relationships, can help strengthen your personal identity. Consider looking within to figure out the qualities and characteristics that define you and make you feel grounded and happy as well as your values, interests, passions, and hobbies.

Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter.

sense and linguistic meaning. a solution to the burge-kripke conflict

Erikson, E. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Marcia, J. Development and Validation of Ego Identity Statuses.Drag to reposition. Carlo Penco. University of Genoa. More details. University of Genoa Department of Philosophy. All publications John Perry Frege's Detour. An Essay on Meaning, Reference, and Truth. Oxford: Oxford University Press,pp.

Some Reflections on Conventions with Massimiliano Vignolo. In Overlooking Conventions Michael Devitt argues in defence of the traditional approach to semantics. While Devitt and minimalists have a common enemy, they are not allies either.

Although this paper is the result of collaboration the authors have written different parts. Carlo Penco has written part 1, Massimiliano Vignolo has written part 2 and part 3.

Meaning and Context-Sensitivity Truth-conditional semantics explains meaning in terms of truth-conditions. The meaning of a sentence is given by the conditions that must obtain in order for the sentence to be true.

Frege's On Sense and Reference (Philosophy of Language)

The meaning of a word is given by its contribution to the truth-conditions of the sentences in which it occurs. The literature on the topic is huge and full of alternative analysis.

sense and linguistic meaning. a solution to the burge-kripke conflict

I claim that to treat the problem of the referential use of definite descriptions we need not only to take into account the context of utterance, but also the cognitive context with its epistemic restrictions and the possible different contexts of reception of the same utterance.

Attributive and Referential Uses of Descriptions. Revisiting Burgeafter more than two decades of debate on indexicals, may help to better understand the originality and the limitation of his claims. Fregean Sense. The aim of the paper is to consider etymological data as providing evidence for alternative theories of language and fostering new directions in linguistic and philosophical research on specific topics. Aspects of Meaning, Misc. Language Understanding.

After analysing the two attempts and verifying which answers they should give to the problem discussed by Kripke, I suggest a possible interpretation of these attempts: to insert a procedural or algorithmic level in semantic representations of indexicals.

That a function may be computed by different procedures might suggest new possibilities of integrating contextual cognitive aspects in model theoretic semantic. This programmatic paper is an attempt to connect some worries in the philosophy of language with some traditional views in artificial intelligence. The Scope of Context-Dependence.

Refusing to Endorse. A must Explanation for Pejoratives. In her analysis of pejoratives, Eva Picardi rejects a too sharp separation between descriptive and expressive content.

Her stance might be… Read more In her analysis of pejoratives, Eva Picardi rejects a too sharp separation between descriptive and expressive content. Her stance might be further developed claiming that uses of pejoratives not only suggest, but also promote a wrong picture of reality.Considered by some to be the greatest philosopher of the 20th century, Ludwig Wittgenstein played a central, if controversial, role in 20th-century analytic philosophy.

He continues to influence current philosophical thought in topics as diverse as logic and language, perception and intention, ethics and religion, aesthetics and culture.

Externalism About Mental Content

In more recent scholarship, this division has been questioned: some interpreters have claimed a unity between all stages of his thought, while others talk of a more nuanced division, adding stages such as the middle Wittgenstein and the third Wittgenstein. Still, it is commonly acknowledged that the early Wittgenstein is epitomized in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.

By showing the application of modern logic to metaphysics, via language, he provided new insights into the relations between world, thought and language and thereby into the nature of philosophy. It is the later Wittgenstein, mostly recognized in the Philosophical Investigationswho took the more revolutionary step in critiquing all of traditional philosophy including its climax in his own early work.

The nature of his new philosophy is heralded as anti-systematic through and through, yet still conducive to genuine philosophical understanding of traditional problems. Wittgenstein was born on April 26, in Vienna, Austria, to a wealthy industrial family, well-situated in intellectual and cultural Viennese circles. In he began his studies in aeronautical engineering at Manchester University where his interest in the philosophy of pure mathematics led him to Frege. Wittgenstein was idiosyncratic in his habits and way of life, yet profoundly acute in his philosophical sensitivity.

During his years in Cambridge, from toWittgenstein conducted several conversations on philosophy and the foundations of logic with Russell, with whom he had an emotional and intense relationship, as well as with Moore and Keynes. He retreated to isolation in Norway, for months at a time, in order to ponder these philosophical problems and to work out their solutions.

In he returned to Austria and inat the start of World War I —joined the Austrian army. He was taken captive in and spent the remaining months of the war at a prison camp.

It was during the war that he wrote the notes and drafts of his first important work, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. After the war the book was published in German and translated into English. It was only in that he returned to Cambridge to resume his philosophical vocation, after having been exposed to discussions on the philosophy of mathematics and science with members of the Vienna Circle, whose conception of logical empiricism was indebted to his Tractatus account of logic as tautologous, and his philosophy as concerned with logical syntax.

During these first years in Cambridge his conception of philosophy and its problems underwent dramatic changes that are recorded in several volumes of conversations, lecture notes, and letters e. In the s and s Wittgenstein conducted seminars at Cambridge, developing most of the ideas that he intended to publish in his second book, Philosophical Investigations.

In he prepared the final manuscript of the Philosophical Investigationsbut, at the last minute, withdrew it from publication and only authorized its posthumous publication. For a few more years he continued his philosophical work, but this is marked by a rich development of, rather than a turn away from, his second phase.

He traveled during this period to the United States and Ireland, and returned to Cambridge, where he was diagnosed with cancer. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus was first published in German in and then translated—by C. Ogden, with F. It was later re-translated by D. Pears and B. It is constructed around seven basic propositions, numbered by the natural numbers 1—7, with all other paragraphs in the text numbered by decimal expansions so that, e.

The world is represented by thought, which is a proposition with sense, since they all—world, thought, and proposition—share the same logical form. Hence, the thought and the proposition can be pictures of the facts. Starting with a seeming metaphysics, Wittgenstein sees the world as consisting of facts 1rather than the traditional, atomistic conception of a world made up of objects.

Facts are existent states of affairs 2 and states of affairs, in turn, are combinations of objects. They may have various properties and may hold diverse relations to one another. Objects combine with one another according to their logical, internal properties. Thus, states of affairs, being comprised of objects in combination, are inherently complex.

The states of affairs which do exist could have been otherwise. This means that states of affairs are either actual existent or possible.To save this word, you'll need to log in. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'conflict. Send us feedback. See more words from the same century Dictionary Entries near conflict conflate conflated conflation conflict conflict diamond conflicted conflicting. Accessed 18 Jul.

Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for conflict conflict. Entry 1 of 2 : a struggle for power, property, etc. Entry 1 of 2 1 : an extended struggle : battle 2 : a clashing disagreement as between ideas or interests conflict.

The meeting conflicts with my appointment. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Name that color: aqua chartreuse wisteria orange Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! It depends on what you base your decision. And who put it there, anyway? Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts.

Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? Additional colors! More obscure than before! Test your knowledge of words related to the season of longer days and vacations. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Do you know the person or title these quotes describe?

Login or Register. Save Word. Log In. Keep scrolling for more. Choose the Right Synonym for conflict Noun discordstrifeconflictcontentiondissensionvariance mean a state or condition marked by a lack of agreement or harmony. There was inevitable conflict over what to name the group. They're having serious conflicts over the budget.

I don't see any conflicts between the theories. You'll need to resolve the conflict between your parents' plans for you and your own ambitions. Verb Mr. HamiltonWall Street Journal8 June Lily smiled faintly at the injunction to take her tea strong. It was the temptation she was always struggling to resist.